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nochero

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  1. По-добре си вземи едно читаво PDA с WiFi & bluetooth.Инсталирай му какъвто софт искаш IGO,TomTom..Garmin е хубава но малко се вързваш за марката и не можеш да го ползваш за друго.
  2. nochero

    Къде в Стара Загора Holuh M1000

    Виж в Jef съм го виждал.Магазина им беше срещу шадравана с пингвините. Аз си купих в София от gsm4you.com Holux M1200 по-малкият модел.Правят доставки и до провинцията. Успех
  3. nochero

    Народни лекове за натъртено и изкълчено

    НЕ ПРАВЕТЕ ГЛУПОСТИ! 1.Обездвижване. 2.Лед 3.Травматолог 4.И никакво ядене и пиене не вода по пътя към болнцата!
  4. nochero

    Какво мислите за продуктите на Herbalife

    мулти левъл маркетинг или набутай другарчето си и му гледай сеира. Не че не вярвам в чудеса, ама виждам много простотии.
  5. nochero

    Преносим Компютър Dell помогнете

    Допада ми. Скоро го избрахме на една колежка и беше в къщи докато го инсталирах.Работи перфектно.Приличен процесор стабилен интелски чипсет богато екипиран с какво ли не. Единствено, поне на мене дисплея му ми сестори по-блед така че го виж на живо преди да го платиш.За ХР драйвери има дори по българските сайтове. Успех с покупката!
  6. nochero

    За или против евтаназията?

    Не смятате ли че има много хора, които ще станат богати, ако обществот има вашата позиция?
  7. nochero

    Дископатия лек

    Извън острият период, в случай, че е уместна физиотерапия,добро средство е плуването.Укрепва паравертебралната мускулатура, която е около гръбначният стълб. Добра идея е да се избягват рисковите движения, да се свалят килограми, да се укрепне коремната преса, да не се ходи по гол пъп и т.н.т.
  8. nochero

    Пребиха Здравко Георгиев

    Да живее България! Радвайте се на Татковината си! Вашето място е ТУК!
  9. nochero

    Търся бастун с подлакътник

    Виж в аптеките и санитарните магазини между Пирогов и Медицинска академия.
  10. nochero

    Възможно ли е лечение на пърхот ?

    Посъветвайте се с дерматолог.Пърхотът не е еднозаболяване а проява на различни.
  11. nochero

    Нужда от кръводарители

    КАТО НЕ ПОМАГАТЕ НА ЧОВЕКА ЗАЩО НЕ СПРЕТЕ С ГЛУПОСТИТЕ! Прелива се САМО изогрупова кръв!-т. е. от същата група A B O и същият Rh! При ИЗКЛЮЧИТЕЛНИ обстоятелства може да има възможност да се прелее Rh/-/ на Rh/+/. Относно кръвта: 1.Определете си кръвните групи в семейството.Твърде вероятно е да има В-. 2.Ако операцията не е в спешен порядък и състоянието и изследванията на болният позволяват, може да се направи автохемотрансфузия.Това е процедура в която болният кръводарява и кръвта му се запазва за собствената му операция която се провежда когато се е възстановил/1-2 месеца.Разрешение за това трябва да се вземе от кардиолога който е извършал катетеризацията или от кардиохируга. 3.Бъди "зговорчив" в центърът по хемотрансфузиология.Те винаги имат запас от няколко сака които ги пазят за деца и родилки .Биха могли да предоставят някой сак1-2 дни преди изтичане на срока му на годност. Освен това те имат контакти с Rh- редовни кръводарители.Пред софииският център по трансфузузилогия редовно има митинг от такива хиени, но не съм убеден че толкова лесно транспортира до Варна.Допускам че ще ви поиска над 100лв за сак. Успех!
  12. nochero

    За или против евтаназията?

    Има много хора които биха изтъквали аргументи за евтаназията,полезните и безполезните за Нацията индивиди, за големите ползи от това "знаещите и отговорните" да решават проблемите на мнозинството. Ама това май не е "свобода на словото"! Друг е въпросът дали човек може сам да решава до кога да живее.Има хубав филм на тази тема -Морето в мен/Mar adentro/.
  13. nochero

    Учат медиците да си мият ръцете

    Заглавието на темата е много некоректно. Преминал съм въпросният курс. Става въпрос за това, че е по-целесъобразно да се отделят средсва за превенция на инфекциите от емпиричната употреба на антибиотици. Чрез подходящи дезинфектанти, протоколи за работа на екипите, адекватна обмяна на информация и статистика и хора може, да се постигне по-добър контрол за по-малко пари. А когато политиката на болницата е да се ползва сапун и хлорамин пак ще има инфекции.
  14. nochero

    Отново за кафето

    IFIC Review Caffeine & Health: Clarifying the Controversies Caffeine is one of the most comprehensively studied ingredients in the food supply. Yet, despite our considerable knowledge of this compound and centuries of safe consumption in foods and beverages, some questions and misperceptions about the potential health effects associated with this ingredient still persist. This issue of IFIC Review provides background information on caffeine, examines its safety and summarizes key research conducted on caffeine and health. Sources of Caffeine Caffeine is a naturally occurring substance found in the leaves, seeds or fruits of at least 63 plant species worldwide and is part of a group of compounds known as methylxanthines. The most commonly known sources of caffeine are coffee and cocoa beans, kola nuts and tea leaves.1, 2 The amount of caffeine in food products varies depending on the serving size, the type of product and preparation method. With teas and coffees, the plant variety also affects caffeine content.2, 3 An eight-ounce cup of drip-brewed coffee typically has 85 mg. of caffeine; an eight-ounce serving of brewed tea has 40 mg.; soft drinks that contain caffeine have an average of 24 mg. per eight-ounce serving; and an ounce of milk chocolate has just six mg.1, 3 Caffeine Consumption The per capita consumption level of caffeine for adults is approximately 200 mg. daily, or a mean intake of 3 mg./kg. body weight for the average adult. Children consume significantly less caffeine than adults. The average daily intake of 5 to 18-year-old children is around 38 mg. This is equivalent to 1 mg./kg., which is substantially less than what the average adult consumes. For children and young adults, the primary sources of caffeine are tea and soft drinks, while caffeine intake for adults 25 and older is mostly derived from coffee.1 Caffeine and Children Contrary to popular belief, children, including those diagnosed as hyperactive, are no more sensitive to the effects of caffeine than adults.4 Leviton reviewed 82 papers, examining the behavioral effects of caffeine in children, and the results are reassuring. Except for infants, children metabolize caffeine more rapidly than adults; and children in general consume much less caffeine than adults, even in proportion to their smaller size.9 Caffeine Content Chart Milligrams of Caffeine ITEM Typical Range* Coffee (8 oz. cup) Brewed, drip method 85 65-120 Instant 75 60-85 Decaffeinated 3 2-4 Espresso (1 oz. cup) 40 30-50 Teas (8 oz. cup) Brewed, major U.S. brands 40 20-90 Brewed, imported brands 60 25-110 Instant 28 24-31 Iced (8-oz. glass) 25 9-50 Some soft drinks (8 oz.) 24 20-40 Cocoa beverage (8 oz.) 6 3-32 Chocolate milk beverage (8 oz.) 5 2-7 Milk chocolate (1 oz.) 6 1-15 Dark chocolate, semi-sweet (1 oz.) 20 5-35 Baker’s chocolate (1 oz.) 26 26 Chocolate-flavored syrup (1 oz.) 4 4 Physiological Effects Caffeine is a pharmacologically active substance, and, depending on the dose, can be a mild central nervous system stimulant.2 Any pharmacological effects of caffeine are transient, usually passing within a few hours.4 Caffeine is one of many constituents in foods that can exert pharmacological and physiological effects. A glass of warm milk before bedtime, for example, is appreciated by some for the somnolent effects of tryptophan, and capsaicin in hot peppers is notorious for producing a burning sensation that often evokes sweating. Caffeine does not accumulate in the body over the course of time and is normally excreted within several hours of consumption. The "half-life" of caffeine is the time it takes to eliminate one-half of consumed caffeine from the body. This varies among individuals, and is about three to four hours in healthy adults. Smoking increases the metabolism of caffeine, generally reducing the half-life to about three hours. With regular consumption, tolerance develops to many of the effects of caffeine. For example, a person who consumes caffeine on a regular basis may drink several cups of coffee in a few hours and notice little effect, whereas a person who isn’t a regular consumer of caffeine may feel some stimulant effect after just one or two servings. Individuals tend to find their own acceptable level of daily caffeine consumption. Those people who feel unwanted effects tend to limit their caffeine consumption; those who do not, continue to consume caffeine at their normal levels. In practice, the person who feels adverse effects such as sleeplessness learns not to consume caffeine before bedtime.5 Additionally, studies have shown that individuals who consume caffeine may increase memory and improve reasoning powers. Research indicates that those who consumed caffeine scored higher grades on motor skill tests, enhanced reaction times and improved auditory and visual vigilance.6, 7, 8 People differ greatly in their sensitivity to caffeine. When analyzing caffeine’s effects on an individual, many factors must be weighed: • The amount ingested • Frequency of consumption • Individual metabolism • Individual sensitivity4 Cancer Over the years, both caffeine and coffee have been linked to certain cancers, but these associations are no longer supported by medical research. La Vecchia et al. in 1988 studied coffee consumption’s relationship to digestive tract cancers. The casecontrol study included patients with confirmed cases of oral, rectal, stomach, liver and colon cancers, as well as patients who did not suffer any digestive tract disorders. La Vecchia’s research confirmed no correlation between coffee consumption and the incidence of digestive tract cancer.10 In 1990, Rosenberg reviewed several epidemiologic and clinical studies that examined the link between bladder, rectal, colon and pancreatic cancers and coffee and tea consumption. The 13 studies reviewed, which included more than 20,000 subjects, found no relationship between coffee or tea consumption and the incidence of bladder, rectal, colon or pancreatic cancers.11 A 1991 study by Jain et al., examined the association between coffee and alcohol with pancreatic cancer. The population-based study included 750 subjects and adjusted for smoking as well as caloric and fiber intake. After calculating lifetime tea and coffee consumption and the variety of coffee consumed, Jain confirmed the results of an earlier review, involving several thousand subjects, which stated that current epidemiologic evidence does not suggest any significant increase in risk of pancreatic cancer with coffee consumption.12, 13 A 1993 meta analysis by Yale University School of Medicine researchers critically reviewed 35 casecontrol studies of coffee and lower urinary tract (LUT) cancer that had been published since 1971. They showed no evidence of an increase in the risk of LUT cancer with coffee consumption after adjustment for the effects of cigarette smoking.14 In the case of breast cancer, a 1990 scientific review by Lubin and Ron examined all the data linking caffeine consumption and malignant breast tumors. Out of the 11 case-control studies reviewed, none established a significant link between caffeine intake and breast cancer incidence.15 Specifically, three separate well-controlled studies performed in Israel, the United States and France established no association between coffee consumption and breast cancer.16 The American Cancer Society’s Guidelines on Diet, Nutrition and Cancer state there is no indication that caffeine is a risk factor in human cancer and the National Academy of Sciences’ National Research Council reports there is no convincing evidence relating caffeine to any type of cancer.16, 17 Cardiovascular Diseases Caffeine, coffee and cardiovascular disease (CVD) is another area that has been extensively examined. A 1986 study cited a link between excessive coffee consumption and heart disease, but the investigators failed to control for other significant risk factors such as diet and smoking.18 A prospective study conducted by Harvard University researchers concluded that caffeine consumption causes "no substantial increase in the risk of coronary heart disease or stroke." The study included 45,589 men between the ages of 40 to 75 years old and adjusted for major cardiovascular risk indicators including dietary intake of fats, cholesterol and smoking.19 Additionally, a case-control study on the effect of filtered coffee (the most common form in the U.S.) consumption on plasma lipid levels was published in 1992. Scientists concluded that filtered coffee consumption led to a small increase in the level of high-density lipoprotein (HDL or "good") cholesterol, that is believed to protect against and lower the risk for coronary heart disease.20 Results from the Scottish Heart Health Study, published in 1993, support the finding that filtered coffee consumption was not linked to an increase in cholesterol concentrations or coronary heart disease (CHD). This study of 9,740 men and women in the United Kingdom, concluded that neither tea nor coffee consumption was linked to CHD. The majority of coffee consumed in the United Kingdom is instant, and the researchers noted that previous studies indicating a positive relationship between coffee and CHD were focusing on unfiltered and boiled coffee which are consumed in Scandinavia, but rarely in the U.S.21 In 1996, the Journal of the American Medical Association published the results of the Willett Nurses’ Health Study. In the largest study ever conducted on women, caffeine and CHD, the investigators followed 85,747 female registered nurses, tracking their coffee consumption and development of CHD. The study found no evidence of a positive relationship between coffee consumption (regular or decaffeinated, current or past consumption) and risk of CHD. The study also pointed out that there was no observable difference in effects between genders.22 Bak and Grobbee conducted a double-blind randomized trial in 1991 to examine caffeine’s effects on blood pressure and serum lipids. Their research included 69 healthy participants, and at the conclusion of the test period, Bak and Grobbee determined that "caffeine has no adverse effect on cardiovascular risk by inducing unfavorable changes in blood pressure or serum lipids."23 Recent analysis from a Multiple Risk Factor Intervention Trial (MRFIT) indicates an inverse correlation between caffeine intake and both systolic and diastolic blood pressure.24 Caffeine and Blood Pressure The effects of caffeine on blood pressure have been the subject of various hypotheses, many of which have been disproved. A number of studies have shown that any temporary rise in blood pressure due to caffeine consumption is less than the elevation produced by normal, daily activities. Cardiac Arrhythmias The American Medical Association’s (AMA) Council on Scientific Affairs concluded that abstaining from caffeine did not significantly influence the occurrence or frequency of arrhythmias.25 A clinical investigation published in 1991 examined the effect of caffeine on 22 patients with a history of ventricular arrhythmias. The investigators concluded that caffeine does not alter the inducibility or severity of ventricular arrhythmias.26 Likewise, a 1991 review by Myers of studies on caffeine and cardiac arrhythmias concluded that moderate caffeine consumption does not increase the frequency or severity of cardiac arrhythmias.27 Osteoporosis Given the recent awareness about the incidence of osteoporosis in postmenopausal women, the relationship between caffeine intake and bone health is a relatively new area of investigation. Because caffeine has been shown to impact calcium excretion slightly, it has been suggested as a risk factor for osteoporosis. An array of studies have been conducted in recent years. In 1994, the NIH convened a federal advisory panel at the Consensus Development Conference on Optimal Calcium Intake. The panel concluded that caffeine has not been found to affect calcium absorption or excretion significantly,and any effect was shown to be more than adequately offset by a tablespoon or two of milk.44 In 1996, a report published by Packard and Recker discussed caffeine intake among younger women in the third decade of their life and its relation to osteoporosis. The study, conducted from 1984 to 1990, followed 145 healthy college-aged women, concluding there was no association between caffeine consumption and bone density.45 A 1990 double-blind, placebo- controlled crossover trial conducted by the same Creighton University researchers who first demonstrated the association, found that caffeine (400 mg/day) had no appreciable effect on external calcium balance in premenopausal women consuming at least 600 mg. of calcium per day, less than half of the RDA. The researchers concluded that moderate caffeine intake was not a threat to bone health.46 A 1992 study examined the lifetime intake of caffeinated coffee in 980 postmenopausal women, and showed there was an association between lifetime caffeinated coffee intake (equivalent to two cups/day) and reduced bone mineral density. However, this observation was only seen among women who had low intake of milk suggesting that coffee replaced milk consumption in these women. Supplementation of calcium intake by consuming at least one glass of milk per day eliminated the relationship between coffee intake and decreased bone density.47 In 1997, in the most definitive study to date, Lloyd et al. examined the effects of long-term habitual caffeine intake on bone status of healthy postmenopausal women. Caffeine content was measured from diet records then analytically tested, and bone density measurements were taken from both hips. To reduce confounding variables, women aged 55-70 who had minimal or no exposure to hormone replacement therapy were studied. Caffeine intake, from none to 1400 mg. per day in this study population, was not associated with any changes in bone density.48 Caffeine & Women’s Health With increased attention to nutrition, many women, especially those of child-bearing ages, wonder if it is safe to consume caffeine-containing foods and beverages. Women’s health issues, for example, reproductive effects and osteoporosis, are areas of active investigation. Recent research supports moderate consumption of caffeine for consumers, including pregnant and post-menopausal women. Fertility In 1990, researchers at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and Harvard University examined 2,800 women who had recently given birth and 1,800 with the medical diagnosis of primary infertility. They looked at the association between the length of time to conceive and consumption of caffeinecontaining beverages. Both groups were interviewed with the same questionnaire concerning caffeine consumption, medical history and lifestyle habits. The researchers found that caffeine consumption had little or no effect on the reported time to conceive in those women who had given birth, and that caffeine consumption was not a risk factor for continued infertility in women being treated for infertility.28 These findings were confirmed in an epidemiological study of more than 11,000 Danish women published in 1991 and further strengthened in 1995 by University of California-Berkeley researchers who evaluated 1,300 pregnant women. The studies examined the relationship between the number of months to conception, cigarette smoking and coffee and tea consumption. The research found no association between delayed conception and the consumption of caffeinated beverages among nonsmokers.29, 30 A study published in 1993 on 1,909 married women, interviewed during early pregnancy, reported a delay in conception in subjects with caffeine intake over 300 mg. The study indicated several limitations including that women self-reported the length of time between discontinuing birth control and time to conception.31 A study of 210 women, published in the American Journal of Public Health in 1998, reported on the differences in fertility associated with consumption of different caffeinated beverages. In this study, prompted by an inconsistency in previously reported findings, the researchers did not find a significant association between total caffeine consumption and reduced fertility. In fact, the researchers found that women who drank more than one-half cup of tea per day had a significant increase in fertility. This was particularly true with caffeine consumption in the early stages of a woman’s attempt at conception. The caffeinated tea and fertility correlation was supported by a 1994 study, however those women had significantly higher consumption levels.32, 33 Reproduction In 1995, Leviton reviewed the results of 26 human studies conducted since 1981 on the effect of caffeine consumption on reproduction. Leviton concluded that "caffeine as currently consumed by pregnant women has no discernible adverse effects on fetuses."34 A seven-year prospective study comprising more than 1,500 women examined caffeine use during pregnancy and infant outcome. Caffeine consumption, determined by self-reporting, averaged 193 mg. of caffeine daily during early pregnancy and decreased to 152 mg. per day by mid-term. The study showed no relationship between caffeine intake and birthweight, birth length or head circumference. Follow-up examinations of the children at ages eight months, four and seven years also revealed no relationship between caffeine intake during pregnancy and early childhood development measures of motor skills or intelligence.35 Miscarriage In a 1997 report, Fenster et al. published the data from her investigation into the relationship of caffeine consumption to spontaneous abortion. In the study, conducted in 1990-91, 5,342 pregnant women were interviewed, and these researchers concluded that there was no increased risk for spontaneous abortion associated with caffeine consumption.36 In 1993, a research team headed by the U.S. National Institute of Child Health and Human Development published the results of their prospective study on 431 women during pregnancy. The researchers carefully monitored the women and the amount of caffeine they consumed from conception to birth. After accounting for nausea, smoking, alcohol use and maternal age, the researchers found no correlation between caffeine consumption of up to 300 mg. per day and adverse pregnancy outcomes, including spontaneous abortion (miscarriage).37 Stein and Susser hypothesized that the nausea commonly seen in pregnancy may create an erroneous association between caffeine consumption and miscarriage. Nausea is associated with increasing hormone levels during a normal pregnancy and is significantly less common in pregnancies that end in miscarriage. A National Institutes of Health (NIH) study pointed out that women who experienced nausea consumed significantly less caffeine than women who did not encounter nausea. The reduced caffeine consumption in women with nausea compared with women already destined to abort, who have less nausea and thus less reduction in caffeine consumption, can be misconstrued as an adverse effect of caffeine.38 The Stein-Susser nausea hypothesis may explain the findings of a 1993 study, a retrospective case-control study of 331 cases with fetal loss and 993 controls with a normal pregnancy. Caffeine intake before and during pregnancy was shown to be associated with increased fetal loss, but the authors failed to measure the effects of nausea or to assess the impact of nausea on fetal loss. In addition, caffeine consumption was not measured and adjustments for smoking and alcohol consumption were not made.39 A study published in 1995, involving almost 900 cases and controls, provided further evidence against an effect of caffeine consumption on preterm delivery.40 Earlier, a series of reports in 1992 analyzed the effects of cigarettes, alcohol and coffee consumption on pregnancy outcome in more than 40,000 Canadian women. Although alcohol consumption and smoking tended to have negative effects on pregnancy outcome, the principal investigator, McDonald, concluded, "There’s no evidence that moderate caffeine intake has adverse effects on pregnancy or pregnancy outcome."41, 42 Benign Breast Disease Caffeine was first discussed in relation to breast disease in the late 1970s. One researcher published several studies suggesting that abstinence might alleviate the symptoms of fibrocystic breast disease (FBD), a condition of benign fibrous lumps in the breast. While caffeine subsequently was not linked to development of the disease, some subjects reported feeling less breast tenderness when they eliminated caffeine from their diets. However, problems with the designs of the studies, which were based on anecdotal reports from a small number of women, made the conclusions suspect. A larger case-control study conducted by the National Cancer Institute (NCI) involved more than 3,000 women. This research showed no evidence of an association between caffeine intake and benign tumors, FBD or breast tenderness. Both the NCI and the AMA Council on Scientific Affairs have stated there is no association between caffeine intake and fibrocystic breast disease. Therefore it may be unnecessary for healthcare providers to routinely counsel otherwise healthy women with FBD to refrain from caffeine consumption.43 Caffeine and Withdrawal Depending on the amount ingested, caffeine can be a mild stimulant to the central nervous system. Although sometimes colloquially referred to as "addictive," moderate caffeine consumption is safe and should not be classified with addictive drugs of abuse. When regular caffeine consumption is abruptly discontinued, some individuals may experience withdrawal symptoms, such as headaches, fatigue or drowsiness. These effects usually are temporary, lasting up to a day or so, and often can be avoided if caffeine cessation is gradual.49, 50, 51 Moreover, most caffeine consumers do not demonstrate dependent, compulsive behavior, characteristic of dependency to drugs of abuse.4 Although pharmacologically active, the behavioral effects of caffeine typically are minor. As further elaborated by the American Psychiatric Association, drugs of dependence cause occupational or recreational activities to be neglected in favor of drug-seeking activity.5 Clearly, this is not the case with caffeine. In Summary ... Because caffeine is so widely consumed, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and medical researchers have conducted extensive research and have carefully reviewed caffeine’s safety, even since caffeine was placed on the U.S. FDA’s Generally Recognized As Safe (GRAS) list in 1958. In 1978, the agency recommended additional research be conducted to resolve any uncertainties about its safety.2,3 In 1987, FDA reaffirmed its position that scientific evidence does not indicate caffeine in carbonated beverages creates any adverse effects in humans.52 Furthermore, both the National Academy of Sciences National Research Council and the U.S. Surgeon General’s office report there has been no association established between caffeine, as normally consumed in our diet, and an increased risk to health.16, 53 References 1. Barone, J.J. and Roberts, H. Caffeine consumption. Food and Chemical Toxicology, 34:119-129, 1996. 2. Institute of Food Technologists (IFT) Expert Panel on Food Safety & Nutrition. Caffeine, a scientific status summary, 1987. 3. Lecos, C. Caffeine jitters: some safety questions remain. FDA Consumer, 21:22-27, Dec. 1987/Jan. 1988. 4. Dews, P.B. Caffeine research: An international overview. Paper presented at a meeting of the International Life Sciences Institute, Sidney, July 1986. 5. Hughes, J.R., Higgins, S.T., Bickel, W.K. et al. Caffeine self-administration, withdrawal, and adverse effects among coffee drinkers. Archives of General Psychiatry, 48:611-617, 1988 6. Lieberman, H.R., Wurtman, R.J., Emde, G.G. et al. The effects of low doses of caffeine on human performance and mood. Psychopharmacology, 92:308-312, 1987. 7. Jarvis, M. Does caffeine intake enhance absolute levels of cognitive performance? Psychopharmacology, 110:45-52, 1993. 8. Bernstein, G., Carroll, M., Crosby, R. et al. Caffeine effects on learning, performance, and anxiety in normal school age children. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 33(A3): 407-415, 1994. 9. Leviton, A. Behavioral correlates of caffeine consumption by children. Clinical Pediatrics, 31:742- 750, 1992. 10. La Vecchia, C., Monica, F., Negri, E. et al. Coffee consumption and digestive tract cancers. Cancer Research, 49:1049-1051, 1989. 11. Rosenberg, L. Coffee and tea consumption in relation to the risk of large bowel cancer: A Review of Epidemiologic Studies. Cancer Letters, 52:163-171, 1990. 12. Jain, M., Howe, G.R., St. Louis, P. et al. Coffee and alcohol as determinants of risk of pancreas cancer: a case-control study from Toronto. International Journal of Cancer, 47:384-389, 1991. 13. Gordis, L. Consumption of methylxanthine-containing beverages and risk of pancreatic cancer. Cancer Letters, 52:1-12, 1990. 14. Viscoli, C.M., Lachs, M.S., Horwitz, R.I. Bladder cancer and coffee drinking: a summary of casecontrol research. Lancet, 341:1432-1437, 1993. 15. Lubin, F. and Ron, E. Consumption of methylxanthine-containing beverages and the risk of breast cancer. Cancer Letters, 53:81-90, 1990. 16. National Research Council. Diet and health: Implications for reducing chronic disease risk. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press, 1989. 17. American Cancer Society’s Medical and Scientific Committee. Guidelines on diet, nutrition, and cancer. CA-A Cancer Journal for Clinicians, 41(6):334-338, 1996. 18. LaCroix, A.Z., Mead, L.A., Liang, K.Y. et al. Coffee consumption and the incidence of coronary heart disease. The New England Journal of Medicine, 315:977-982, 1986. 19. Grobbee, D.E., Rimm, E.B., Giovannucci, E. et al. Coffee, caffeine, and cardiovascular disease in men. The New England Journal of Medicine, 323:1026-1032, 1990. 20. Fried, R.E., Levine, D.M., Kwiterovich, P.O. et al. The effect of filtered-coffee consumption on plasma lipid levels. Journal of the American Medical Association, 267:811-815, 1992. 21. Brown, C.A., Bolton-Smith, C., Woodward, M., Tunstall-Pedoe, H. Coffee and tea consumption and the prevalence of CHD in men and women: results from the Scottish Heart Health Study. Journal of Epidemiological Community Health, 47(3):171-175, 1993. 22. Willett, W.C., Stampfer, M.J., Manson, J.E. et al. Coffee consumption and coronary heart disease in women: a ten-year follow-up. Journal of the American Medical Association, 275(6):458-462, 1996. 23. Bak, A.A.A. and Grobee, D.E. Caffeine, blood pressure, and serum lipids. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 53:971-975, 1991. 24. Stamler, J., Caggiula, A.W., Grandits, G.A. Chapter 12. Relation of body mass and alcohol, nutrient, fiber, and caffeine intakes to blood pressure in the special intervention and usual care groups in the Multiple Risk Factor Intervention Trial. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 65 Supplement: pp.338-365, 1997. 25. American Medical Association’s Council on Scientific Affairs. 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